Oral liquid supplements
Vitamin deficiencies are most commonly due to
inadvertent omission of a complete vitamin premix
from the birds’ diet. Multiple signs are therefore
seen, although in general, signs of B vitamin
deficiencies appear first. Because there are some
stores of fat-soluble vitamins in the body,
it often takes longer for these deficiencies to
affect the bird, and it may take months for vitamin
A deficiency to affect adult birds.
Treatment and prevention rely on an adequate dietary supply, usually microencapsulated in gelatin or starch along with an antioxidant. Vitamin destruction in feeds is a factor of time, temperature, and humidity. For most feeds, efficacy of vitamins is little affected over 2-mo storage within mixed feed.